Overview: Japanese Archaeological Research Trends 20141

TRENDS IN JAPANESEA RCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH , 2014

Takakura Hiroaki2

The Japanese Archaeological Association, established in April 1948 on the occasion of the excavation of the Toro3 site in Shizuoka prefecture, while being an academic organization representing Japanese archaeology and having a large membership, for a long time remained a private (unincorporated) organization. Within the Association there was demand for conversion to an incorporated association,4 but it was not possible to clear the necessary conditions, and this goal went unachieved. Subsequently, with the establishment of the Intermediate Corporation Act5 the Association became a limited liability intermediary corporation6 in March 2004, and transitioned to its current identity7 as a general incorporated association in June 2009.

Over this interval, conditions attending Japanese archaeology have changed. Among specialists in archaeology who work as researchers there are faculty members at academic institutions such as universities, personnel in charge of buried cultural properties at regional governments and private investigative organizations, curators at museums, and others. There are also those who do not hold jobs in archaeology but nevertheless produce outstanding research in the field. Among these researchers, persons at least 25 years of age who wish to join may become members of the Association if approved as qualified. At the peak time in the year 2002 there were 7,081 researchers holding jobs in archaeology. By contrast the Association had 3,651 members, or approximately 52 percent of these researchers under its organization. Subsequently, as a result of adjustments in the numbers of employees occasioned by mergers of local towns and municipalities, the number of working research specialists decreased to around 5,800 by the 2014 fiscal yea r8 as vacated posts were increasingly left unfulfilled, while the Association’s membership increased to 4,172, with the proportion of organized researchers thus reaching 72 percent. Since the number counted as research specialists does not include persons who have retired, the organized proportion is a bit lower, but even so, that approximately seven tenths of archaeological researchers in Japan are members of the Association is a significant matter. It is a measure of the heavy responsibility the Association must bear with regard to archaeological matters in Japan.

The weight of this responsibility demands a streamlining of the organization. In the course of the Association’s transition, from a limited liability intermediary corporation to a general incorporated association, the provisional use with partial revision of its former Articles of Incorporation from its status as an intermediary corporation was permitted. But there were substantial discrepancies between those provisional Articles of Incorporation and the more recently adopted General Incorporated Associations and General Incorporated Foundations Law.9 There were moreover contradictions present among the Association’s Regulations, Rules, and Bylaws, and between these and the provisional Articles of Incorporation. In face of this the Board of Directors moved forward in the 2013 fiscal year with preparations for revision, and new Articles of Incorporation were established at the Association’s 80th General Meeting in fiscal 2014. In coordination with the new Articles, the Regulations of the Association have been drastically revised. The new Articles and Regulations went into effect in May 2014 when the current Board of Directors began their term of office, while the separate sets of regulations for the operations and employment practices of the Association Office, and various rules and bylaws, such as the rules concerning emeritus membership, that were still in effect as they had been under the old Articles, were subsequently revised and enacted anew by the Committee to Investigate the Revision of Various Rules and Regulations set up within the Board of Directors. Although a small portion of this work, such as the rules concerning patron membership which require discretion, remains as a task left over for the 2015 fiscal year, the organizational overhaul of the Association may be called nearly complete.

Beginning with the Articles, the various Rules and Regulations have changed greatly. With regard to the major items, the Association intends to make these widely known by including them in the new Directory of Members scheduled to appear in March 2016, and for those items not required by all members although vital to the operation of the organization, such as the regulations for the operations and employment practices of the Association Office, considerations are being made to have these easily retrievable for members.

The Association’s activities are carried out under its seven standing committees.

The Editorial Committee10 published issues No. 37 and 38 of the Association’s journal Nihon kōkogaku (Journal of the Japanese Archaeological Association) which reflects archaeological research activities. Despite its being the main publication of the Association, which itself bears a heavy responsibility toward the realm of archaeology in Japan, the number of submitted manuscripts remains low as ever. To enrich this journal, the Association hopes its members will strive to make contributions.

The English Editorial Committee11 published Vol. 2, No. 1 of the Japanese Journal of Archaeology , an electronic English language periodical. Japanese archaeology has achieved many results in research and investigations to date, but has been unable to disseminate these to the rest of the world. This English journal is being published in an attempt to deliver these results to an English language audience. Even though it has been published only once yearly, it has been provided with an issue number (No. 1) because of plans to publish multiple times yearly, beginning with two issues in the coming fiscal year. With events such as the World Archaeology Conference scheduled to be held in Kyoto in fiscal 2016, the internationalization of archaeology is indispensable, and the Association will continue to address this issue in earnest fashion in the future.

The International Exchange Committee12 selected one site from each period among those in the exhibit catalog Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2013 (Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago, 2013),13 plus others related to reconstruction work following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and translating the explanations from the catalog into English and posting these materials on its website,14 conveyed to the rest of the world some of the latest results of Japanese archaeological excavations. The committee also held a session of public lectures on the theme of the origins of agriculture and its dispersion in Asia,15as the eighth such event in an annual series co-sponsored with three other Japanese academic societies focusing on the archaeology of Asia.

The Research Conditions Investigative Committee,16 focusing on the decline in student numbers for archaeology majors at the university level, conducted a questionnaire regarding lecture content at 194 universities as part of an examination of problems involving archaeological education, research environment, and the training of future generations of specialists at Japanese universities. The questionnaire results were presented at the Association’s 2014 Autumn Meeting in a poster17 on the current state of training of future archaeological researchers, invoking the gravity of the problem.

The Committee on Policy for the Protection of Buried Cultural Properties,18through its annual regular committee and information exchange meetings, monthly governing board meetings, and workshops, strives to assess developments concerning the preservation and utilization of buried cultural properties in every region. As a result, formal appeals were issued for the preservation and utilization of the Ebigasaku shell midden19 in Funahashi, Chiba prefecture, the barrier feature on the western side of Enkakuji temple20 in Kamakura, Kanagawa prefecture, and Urado castle21 in Kōchi, Kōchi prefecture. Exchanges of opinion were conducted with the Agency for Cultural Affairs regarding issues of preservation regarding the Takaosan22 tomb in Numazu, Shizuoka prefecture, along with the Ebigasaku midden and Urado castle. Also, presentations were made on the topic of the recent past and future of the buried cultural properties protection system at the Association’s 2015 General Meeting. 23

The Committee to Investigate Social Studies and History Texts24 continued its involvement regarding the revision of elementary school curriculum guidelines. At a symposium held by the committee in November at Tokyo Gakugei University there were presentations on topics such as postwar transitions in social studies and history education in the school curriculum guidelines.25 Also, posters were presented on the theme of that symposium at the Association’s 2014 Autumn Meeting, and on requests regarding the revision of the elementary school curriculum guidelines at the Association’s 2015 General Meeting. 26

Until now the activities of the Public Relations Committee27 have not drawn much attention. That is one reason why various activities of the Association, such as the work of the Board of Directors and various committees, involvement in the problem of the imperial tombs, dissemination of research results to the general public through public lectures and symposia, and issuing of formal appeals and statements from the Association President, are not more widely known. In this regard the revitalization of the Public Relations Committee and the enrichment of its work are being endeavored, and as one part of this a renewal of the Association’s website is currently underway.

As an ad hoc committee, the Special Response Committee to the Great East Japan Earthquake,28 established after the March 2011 disaster, has continued to conduct inspections in cooperation with local agencies at locations in damaged communities and at archaeological excavations held in conjunction with reconstruction projects, and to hold public meetings where the results of reconstruction investigations are reported. Such meetings were held in the cities of Miyako in Iwate prefecture and Fukushima in Fukushima prefecture,29 and the people of those disaster-struck regions responded with high interest. With delays in the progress of excavations attending the reconstruction efforts, and as investigations of buried cultural properties are planned in relation to intermediate storage facilities in areas affected by the nuclear reactor disaster, requests are being made in consultations with the Agency for Cultural Affairs for lessening the burden in terms of personnel and finances for the continuation of investigations from the 2016 fiscal year on, as well as for considerations concerning the health of personnel in charge of the work.

Regarding the donation of the Association’s library, a determination was made in the previous fiscal year to donate the collection to Nara University. As this was to be carried out in the 2014 fiscal year, a contract and memorandum concerning the donation of the Association’s library were signed on November 20 in the presence of Nara University’s Chairman of the Board Ichikawa Yoshiya and President Senda Yoshihiro, and the Japanese Archaeological Association’s President Takakura Hiroaki and Vice President Ishikawa Hideshi. With this the arrangements for the donation were completed, and the books were transferred on the 28th of that month. The processing of these materials will be carried out at Nara University, and since the Association’s 2015 Autumn Meeting will be held at that venue, steps are being taken for members to make actual inspections of the arrangement of the materials in the library at that time. I wish to express thanks to the Special Committee Concerned with the Association’s Library30 for their earnest efforts at resolving this matter.

The above activities of the 2014 fiscal year were reported at the Association’s 2015 General Meeting held at Teikyo University.

Below, I would like to touch on some of the research trends of the 2014 fiscal year.

Each fiscal year, the Association gives awards to honor excellent research achievements in archaeology regardless of whether or not the recipients are Association members. In fiscal 2014, the Grand Award was given to Mizoguchi Kōji for The Archaeology of Japan ,31 and Monetary Awards went to Nagatomo Tomoko for Yayoi jidai doki seisan no tenkai (Pottery Production in the Yayoi Period)32 and to Aono Tomoya for Haka no shakaiteki kinō no kōkogaku (An archeological study of the social functions of graves). 33

Applications for the Association’s awards are overwhelmingly for books. We can endorse this method of making the results of one’s archaeological work known publicly by publishing them in the form of a monograph. But books also have the characteristic of being public presentations of the accumulation of long years of work, rather than just the results from a single year. As the Association’s awards are given for the achievements and results from each fiscal year, if pressed on the matter we might say that articles are rather more suited for them. Of course since it is the contents that are being honored regardless if from an article or a book it is impossible to say that one or the other is superior, but even so the current situation is that applications for articles are few. This does not reflect the actual state of affairs seen in the trends of achievements introduced within this volume,34 most of which are in the form of articles. I would therefore like to encourage the authors of articles to make applications for the Association’s awards.

Among research trends for the Paleolithic period, human origins and dispersal in the context of Asian history were discussed at a session of the 2015 General Meeting.35 While a globalization in perspective can be discerned, solid advances are being made in regional research on the Paleolithic period. In particular, at the Sakitari cave site in Nanjō, Okinawa prefecture,36 cutting tools fashioned from a marine bivalve and beads made from tusk shells thought to have been used as personal ornaments were found together with human skeletal remains. These were recovered from a layer with carbonized matter dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and were accompanied by many freshwater fish species, which are thought to have been the principle item in the diet. Research on the materials used for stone tools was also active, with research being advanced through a symposium held by the Japanese Paleolithic Research Association in June on stone material production and consumption in relation to site formation,37 and by a session on obsidian and other stone tool materials held at the Asian Paleolithic Association Meeting in South Korea in November. 38

As trends for the Jōmon period, there was a considerable amount of research seen on Jōmon period society, such as the two sessions put together at the 2014 Autumn Meeting on new perspectives in shell midden research39 and on graves and monuments,40 and a session at the 2015 General Meeting on cultural changes and dates of the Incipient and Earliest Jōmon. 41

For research trends of the Yayoi period, I will yield to the detailed report from Ishida Tomoko,42 but as Ishida summarizes it, there were great achievements in topics which include settlement dynamics and changes in group relations and their mutual effects, the clarification of actual conditions for a variety of livelihood activities, networks related to the production and distribution of metal utensils and beads, and social change as seen through pottery. Nagatomo’s Yayoi jidai doki seisan no tenkai ,43 which won an Association Monetary award, is one example of this, which takes an East Asian perspective and discusses not just the regional characteristics of pottery but rather the production of Yayoi pottery in comprehensive fashion, including matters such as changes in the system of cermaic production, the introduction of foreign dietary items and the changing composition of the set of utensils. Despite such achievements, the absence of any sessions or symposia on the Yayoi period at the Association’s General and Autumn Meetings is a bit odd.

Among trends in Kofun period research, special note can be taken of the completion of the ten-volume compilation Kofun jidai no kōkogaku (Archaeology of the Kofun Period) edited by Ichinose Kazuo, Fukunaga Shin’ya, and Hōjō Yoshitaka.44 It is also worth noting, with regard to the various accumulated research achievements for the Kofun period such as the typological ordering of tombs and mortuary goods and the assessment of their dates, which have been conventionally pursued in depth, along with debates about rituals, settlements, and exchanges with East Asia, and the session on a Late Kofun period chiefly tomb held at the 2015 General Meeting,45 and so forth, there were noteworthy efforts at the international dissemination of these research results, as summarized in the form of Mizoguchi’s The Archaeology of Japan which took the 5th Association Grand Prize, and as a grant-in-aid-supported research program, headed by Fukunaga Shin’ya,46 for drawing up a comprehensive overview of the period and broadcasting the results at sessions held at the Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology and at symposia and workshops at academic institutions in Europe and America.

For the Ancient period, investigations and research were continued regarding the palaces and capitals at each of the capital sites of Asuka, Fujiwara, Heijō, and Heian,47 and important investigations proceeded at regional government offices such as the Ae site48 in Kasuya, Fukuoka prefecture. For temples, at the Kōzuke Kokubunji49 site, a new structure built on pillar base stones was detected, which is thought to be the remains of the main hall. In research on artifacts, beginning with Shinbo Masahiro’s article which infers the political background in ancient Mutsu province based on manufacturing technology and the design of endpieces of unearthed roof tiles,50 there were treatises on pottery and wooden utensils, and analyses of written materials such as mokkan (wooden documents) and ink- inscribed pottery, plus the results of research on metal implements such as that by Tsuno Jin on military armament. 51

Research on the Medieval and Early Modern periods also advanced. For example, at the Yanbeta kiln site52 at Kuromuta in Arita, Saga prefecture, it became clear that the production of Iroe porcelain53 began around 1640–50. As the Yanbeta kiln is one of the oldest producers of Iroe porcelain, this finding enables determining the start of its production. The inscription on the World Heritage List of the Tomioka Silk Mill and Related Sites is a good example stressing the need for the managed preservation and utilization of Early Modern heritage. As the 70th year of the postwar era, this was also a year that evoked the need for investigation and preservation of war-related sites that serve to recall fading wartime memories.

Archaeological research related to East and Northeast Asia was also very active. Regarding the Korean peninsula, a joint research meeting on the theme of the archaeology of maritime exchange was held at the Okinawa Prefectural Museum by the Archaeological Society of Kyushu and the Yeongnam Archaeological Society.54In Okinawa, roof tiles deriving from Goryeo, which are not seen on the island of Kyushu, have been recovered from four sites including the Urasoe55 and Shuri56castles. On the other hand, as items made of shell from south sea conches such as gohour a57and from the green turban58 have been recovered from South Korea, there was evidently a maritime route connecting Okinawa and Korea. Taking these matters into perspective, a very productive research meeting was held with the cooperation of archaeological researchers from Okinawa. With respect to China, there was a trend for large amounts of research relating to the Han and later periods. As a monograph, the publication is noted of an anthology on East Asian ancient cultures edited by Takakura59 with a focus extending broadly to Eurasia.

As the Japanese Archaeological Association looks toward the 70th anniversary of its founding in 2018, the aging of its membership advances in keeping with its long history. Losses among our predecessors have been increasing, and in the 2014 fiscal year we bade farewell to 23 members, beginning with former president Tamura Kōichi60 and past president Tanaka Yoshiyuki.61 In order to carry forward the wishes of these former and past presidents who took such great pains in resolving the problem of the Association’s library and revising the Articles of Incorporation and Regulations, etc., we hope for even greater efforts in the areas of research and the Association’s organization.

  1. Trends in Japanese Archaeological Research, 2014 , is a partial translation of “Nihon kōkogaku kenkyū no dōkō” 日本考古学研究の動向 , in Nihon kōkogaku nenpō 67 (2014 nendoban) 日本考古学年報67( 2014 年度版 ) (Archaeologia Japonica 67 [2014 Fiscal Year Issue]) (Nihon Kō kogaku Kyōkai , 2016), pp. 1-64. This essay appears on pp. 1-5, under the Japanese title “Sōsetsu” 総説 . It was translated by Walter Edwards, and published by the Japanese Archaeological Association (Nihon Kō kogaku Kyōkai 日本考古学協会 ) online in 2017. To streamline the text, characters for Japanese names and terms, and bibliographic information have been placed in footnotes. When an English translation of the name of an organization or publication (or symposium, etc.) is supplied by the party responsible, this is used with minimum changes in capitalization etc. to conform to the style followed by Trends in Japanese Archaeological Research. Romanized names of individuals are given with the surname followed by the personal name.
  2. 髙倉洋彰
  3. 登呂
  4. shadan hōjin 社団法人
  5. Chūkan Hōjinhō中間法人法
  6. yūgen sekinin chūkan hōjin 有限責任中間法人
  7. Official Japanese title: Ippan Shadan Hōjin Nihon Kōkogaku Kyōkai 一般社団法人日本考古学協会 (General Incorporated Association, The Japanese Archaeological Association)
  8. The fiscal year begins on April 1 of each calendar year.
  9. Ippan Shadan Hōjin oyobi Ippan Zaidan Hōjin ni kansuru Hōritsu 一般社団法人及び一般財団法人に関する法律 [promulgated June 2, 2006; effective December 1, 2008]
  10. Kikanshi Henshū Iinkai 機関誌編集委員会
  11. Eibun Kikanshi Henshū Iinkai 英文機関誌編集委員会
  12. Kokusai Kōryū Iinkai 国際交流委員会
  13. Hakkutsu sareta Nihon rettō 2013 発掘された日本列島2013 (Excavations in the Japanese Archipelago,2013), ed. Bunkachō文化庁 (Agency for Cultural Affairs) (Asahi Shimbun Publications, 2013).
  14. Available: http://archaeology.jp/sites/2013/index.htm
  15. “Ajia ni okeru nōkō no kigen to kakusan” アジアにおける農耕の起源と拡散 (The Origin and Dispersal ofAgriculture in Asia), held at Meiji University, 10 January 2015.
  16. Kenkyū Kankyō Kentō Iinkai 研究環境検討委員会
  17. “Kōkogaku kenkyū ni okeru kōkeisha ikusei no genjō” 考古学研究における後継者育成の現状 (Current Situation Regarding the Training of Future Archaeological Researchers), poster presented at the NihonKōkogaku Kyōkai 2014 Shūki Taikai 日本考古学協会2014年度秋季大会 (Japanese Archaeological Asso-ciation 2014 Autumn Meeting) (Date, Hokkaido, 11–12 October, 2014).
  18. Maizō Bunkazai Hogo Taisaku Iinkai 埋蔵文化財保護対策委員会
  19. 海老ヶ作貝塚(千葉県船橋市)
  20. 円覚寺西側結界遺構(神奈川県鎌倉市)
  21. 浦戸城(高知県高知市)
  22. 高尾山(静岡県沼津市)
  23. “Maizō bunkazai hogo taisei no 10 nen to kongo o kangaeru” 埋蔵文化財保護体制の10年と今後を考える (Considering the Past 10 Years and the Future of the Buried Cultural Properties Protection System),session held at the Nihon Kōkogaku Kyōkai 2015 Nendo Sōkai 日本考古学協会2015年度総会(Japanese Archaeological Association 2015 General Meeting) (Teikyo University, 24 May, 2015).
  24. Shakaika/Rekishi Kyōkashotō Kentō Iinkai 社会科・歴史教科書等検討委員会
  25. Katō Akira 加藤章, “Sengo no gakushū shidō yōryō ni okeru rekishi kyōiku/shakaika kyōiku nohensen” 戦後の学習指導要領における歴史教育・社会科教育の変遷 (Transitions in the Teaching of Historyand Social Studies in the Postwar School Curriculum Guidelines), presentation at the symposium”Shō/chūgakkō dankai ni okeru rekishi gakushū to kōkogaku no yakuwari” 小・中学校段階における歴史学習と考古学の役割 (The Role of Archaeology in the Study of History at the Elementary and MiddleSchool Levels), organized by Teikyo University and the Committee to Investigate Social Studies andHistory Texts (Teikyo University, 8 November 2014).
  26. “Shōgakkō shidō yōryōtō no kaitei ni taisuru yōbō” 小学校指導要領等の改訂に対する要望 (RequestsRegarding the Revision of the Elementary School Curriculum Guidelines), poster presented at theNihon Kōkogaku Kyōkai 2015 Nendo Sōkai (24 May, 2015).
  27. Kōhō Iinkai 広報委員会
  28. Higashi Nihon Daishinsai Taisaku Tokubetsu Iinkai 東日本大震災対策特別委員会
  29. “Higashi Nihon Daishinsai fukkō ni tomonau hakkutsu chōsa no seika hōkokukai” 東日本大震災復興に伴う発掘調査の成果報告会 (Meeting for Reporting the Results of Excavations Attending Reconstruc-tion Efforts), public meetings sponsored by the Japanese Archaeological Association (Miyako, Iwateprefecture, 31 January 2015; Fukushima, Fukushima prefecture, 1 February 2015).
  30. Kyōkai Tosho ni Kakawaru Tokubetsu Iinkai 協会図書に係わる特別委員会
  31. Koji Mizoguchi, The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of theState (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
  32. Nagatomo Tomoko 長友朋子, Yayoi jidai doki seisan no tenkai 弥生時代土器生産の展開 (Potteryproduction in the Yayoi period) (Rokuichi Shobō, 2013).
  33. Aono Tomoya 青野友哉, Haka no shakaiteki kinō no kōkogaku 墓の社会的機能の考古学 (Anarcheological study of the social functions of graves) (Douseisha, 2013).
  34. [Translator’s note: The reference here is to the Association’s annual report, Nihon kōkogaku nenpō67 (see note 1 for bibliographic information), which contains summaries of research trends byarchaeological period and for each prefecture.]
  35. “Nihon rettō ni okeru gensei jinrui (Homo sapiens) shutsugen kenkyū no saizensen”日本列島における現生人類(Homo sapiens) 出現研究の最前線 (The Forefront of Research on the Appearance of ModernMan [Homo sapiens] in the Japanese Archipelago), session held at the Japanese ArchaeologicalAssociation 2015 General Meeting (24 May 2015).
  36. サキタリ洞遺跡(沖縄県南城市)
  37. “Sekizai no kakutoku/shōhi to isekigun no keisei” 石材の獲得・消費と遺跡群の形成 (Procurement andConsumption of Stone Materials and the Formation of Site Groups), symposium held at the NihonKyūsekki Gakkai Dai 12-kai Taikai 日本旧石器学会第12回大会 (12th Meeting of the Japanese Paleolith-ic Research Association) (Kodaira, Tokyo prefecture, 21–22 June, 2014).
  38. “Kokuyōseki oyobi sonota sekki sekizai ni tsuite” 黒曜石及びその他石器石材について (On Obsidianand Other Stone Materials of Stone Tools), session held at the 7th Annual Meeting of the AsianPaleolithic Association (Gongju, South Korea, 13–14 November 2014).
  39. “Kaizuka kenkyū no shinshiten: Jōmon–Kindai no kaizuka to shūraku” 貝塚研究の新視点: 縄文~近代の貝塚と集落(New Perspectives in Shell Midden Research: Shell Middens and Settlements from Jōmonto Modern Times), session held at the Japanese Archaeological Association 2014 Autumn Meeting(11–12 October, 2014).
  40. “Haka to monyumento: Kanjō resseki/moritsuchi ikō/shūteibo” 墓とモニュメント: 環状列石・盛土遺構・周堤墓 (Graves and Monuments: Stone Circles/Piled Earth Features/Earthwork Burial Circles), sessionheld at the Japanese Archaeological Association 2014 Autumn Meeting (11–12 October, 2014).
  41. “Jōmon jidai Sōsōki kara Sōki no nendai to bunka henka” 縄紋時代草創期から早期の年代と文化変化(Chronology and Cultural Change from the Incipient to the Earliest Stages of the Jōmon Period),session held at the Japanese Archaeological Association 2015 General Meeting (24 May 2015).
  42. Ishida Tomoko 石田智子, “Yayoi jidai kenkyū no dōkō” 弥生時代研究の動向 (Trends in Yayoi PeriodResearch), in Nihon kōkogaku nenpō 67. 33–39.
  43. See note 32 for details.
  44. Ichinose Kazuo 一瀬和夫, Fukunaga Shin’ya 福永伸哉, and Hōjō Yoshitaka 北條芳隆, eds., Kofunjidai no kōkogaku 古墳時代の考古学 (Archaeology of the Kofun Period), vols. 1-10 (Douseisha, 2011–2014).
  45. “Kofun jidai kōki shuchōbo ni okeru hisōshazō no kentō: Chiba-ken Jōyama 1 gōfun o chūshin ni”古墳時代後期首長墓における被葬者像の検討: 千葉県城山1号墳を中心に (A Consideration of the Image ofthe Interred at a Chiefly Tomb of the Late Kofun Period: Focusing on the Jōyama No. 1 Tomb in ChibaPrefecture), session held at the Japanese Archaeological Association 2015 General Meeting (TeikyoUniversity, 24 May 2015).
  46. “21 seiki shotō ni okeru Kofun jidai rekishizō no sōkatsuteki teiji to sono kokusai hasshin” 21世紀初頭における古墳時代歴史像の総括的提示とその国際発信(The Kofun Period in the Early 21st Century:Toward a Comprehensive Overview and its Internationalization), MEXT Grant-in-Aid for ScientificResearch project (Principal investigator: Fukunaga Shin’ya; Project number: 23242048; ŌsakaDaigaku, 2011–2014).
  47. Asuka 飛鳥, Fujiwara 藤原, Heijō平城 (all in Nara prefecture), and Heian 平安(Kyoto prefecture)
  48. 阿恵遺跡(福岡県粕屋町)
  49. 上野国分寺 (群馬県)
  50. Shinbo Masahiro 眞保昌弘, “Shutsudo kawara ni miru chūō shūken kokka keiseiki Mutsu no kunishihai taisei no kakki to sono sokumen” 出土瓦にみる中央集権国家形成期陸奥国支配体制の画期とその側面(An Aspect of a Control System in Mutsu Province in the Formation Phase of the Centralized NationSeen in Excavated Tiles), Nihon kōkogaku 日本考古学 (Journal of the Japanese ArchaeologicalAssociation), no. 37 (2014): 57-77.
  51. Tsuno Jin 津野仁, Nihon kodai no gunji busō to keifu『日本古代の軍事武装と系譜』 (Ancient JapaneseMilitary Armament and Its Derivation) (Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 2015).
  52. 山辺田窯跡(佐賀県有田町黒牟田)
  53. 色絵磁器
  54. “Kaiyō kōryū no kōkogaku” 海洋交流の考古学 (The Archaeology of Maritime Exchange), ReinanKōkogakkai to Kyūshū Kōkogakkai no Dai 11-kai Gōdō Kōkogaku Taikai 嶺南考古学会と九州考古学会の第1 1回合同考古学大会 (11th Joint Archaeological Meeting of the Archaeological Society of Kyushuand the Yeongnam Archaeological Society) (Okinawa Prefectural Museum, 31 January–1 February2015).
  55. 浦添
  56. 首里
  57. 護法螺(Strombus latissimus
  58. yakōgai 夜光貝 (Turbo marmoratus)
  59. Takakura Hiroaki, ed., Higashi Ajia kobunka ronkō 東アジア古文化論孜 (Studies in East AsianArchaeology and History) (Fukuoka: Chūgoku Shoten, 2014)
  60. 田村晃一
  61. 田中良之