[A] : Article, [RN] : Research Note, [BR] : Book Review
|[A]||CHEON Seon-Haeng||Rim-holed Pottery in Western Japan||1-22|
|[A]||Takashi Sakai||The Diffusion of Buddhist Stupas In Ancient Times- Concerning the Relationship of Borobudur With Zuto and Nara -||23-45|
|[RN]||Hiroyuki Ota||Haniwa Production and Immigrant Craftsmen In Middle Kofun||47-65|
|[RN]||Osamu Kobayashi||Fundamental Examination of Tsukudakanezuka Mounded Tomb Buried in Volcanic Pumice from Mt. Haruna: Aspects of the Introductory Phase of Horizontal Stone Chamber In Kozuke Region||67-84|
|[BR]||Hitoshi Yamakawa and Asei Sato||Excavation Results of Shimomitsuhashi Site Heijokyo and Its Meanings||85-103|
|[BR]||Hiroyuki Kaneko||Book Review: Ancient Japan, Archaeology for State Formative Processes by Tetsuo Hishida||105-110|
|[BR]||Kazuyuki Matsui||Book Review:Nihon Kodai Tekki SeiSan no Kokogakuteki Kenkyu (Archaeological Study of lron Production in Ancient Japan) by Takumi Anma||111-114|
Rim-holed pottery in western Japan has been always believed to have appeared in the context of the relationship with the Korean Peninsula. The following are the major study outcomes of this belief. (1) The parallel relationship with the early Bronze age and the middle latest Jomon period was set, (2) Rim-holed pottery was first introduced into northern Kyushu region and then was spread from that region to southern Kyushu and Sanin region, (3) Pottery with holes from western Japan has the same ancestry.
The information on rim-holed pottery in Sanin and southern Kyushu region, however, has increased and it came to be known that the times of appearance differ in different localities. Accordingly, the possibility that the ancestry of rim-holed pottery within western Japan and the period related with the Korean Peninsula are different. Besides, the development of rim-holed pottery in western Japan is not uniform. With a critical mind based on these problems, this paper investigated the changes and development of rim-holed pottery in northern Kyushu, southern Kyushu and Sanin region as the major 3 areas where rim-holed pottery standing in a line has been frequently discovered.
As a result, some facts came out. (1) Rim-holed pottery was discovered at the phase of former Harada type in Sanin region and the phase of newer Kurokawa type in Kyushu region. (2) The origin of rim-holed pottery of Sanin is different from that of Kyushu. (3) Especially regarding Kyushu region, rim-holed pottery was spread from southern Kyushu to northern Kyushu. It was presumed that each piece of rim-holed pottery within Sanin and Kyushu regions from different ancestry is related to the Korean Peninsula with the former being related with the Peninsula's southeastern coast and the latter with Honam area.
Zuto in Nara, with Doto in Sakai and Kumayama stone monument in Okayama are classified as special stupas of the Nara Age. They were constructed as stepped pyrauxids with an emphasis on a horizontal orientation. And these stupas, without internal space,are very different from the common Japanese stupa. Such a condition certainly has a close connection with Buddllism, because there are many relief Buddlra images at Zuto.
Stupa, born in India in the 3rd century B.C., became general object of worship for Buddhists before the formation of Buddha imagery. Sanchi stupa, the oldest, is shaped like a half sphere and built to allow worship around it. The functions of Buddhist stupas were also diffused, and shapes show a variety of styles in each cultural area.
Borobudur, in Central Java, Indonesia, is called the biggest Buddhist monument in the world, and was built during over a half century by the Sailendra Dynasty after Mahayana Buddhism was introduced from the Srivijaya Kingdom of South Sumatra in the early half of the 8th century AD. Many Buddlrism images and reliefs in Borobudur were made referencing Gandavyuha and Vajrayana/Esoteric Buddnism from Sri Lanka and East India.
However, a stepped pyramid shape without an inner space as found at Borobudur is found in neither India nor Sri Lanka. And there are no stupas with that similar shape in Southeast Asia prior to Borobudur. Similar shaped monurnents are found only in South Surnatra etc. This type of monurnent, originating from the mountain religions of Megalithic culture that predated the introduction of Buddhism continued through the Historical Age. Borobudur can be seen as a massive monument of this origin, decorated in Buddhism style.
The formation of the Huayen Tsung/Gandavyuha religion in the Tang Dynasty was accomplished due to the large role of ljing, who stayed for a long time in Srivijaya while traveling to India by the sea route of Southeast Asia. The establishment of Vajrayana in the Tang was achieved largely by Vajrabodlxi and Amoghavajra, who came by way of Southeast Asia. Because of this, it can be thought that it was Indonesian local mountain religion, mixed into Huayen Tsung and Vajrayana, that developed into the Buddllism of Nara.
It is for this reason that both Borobudur and Zuto etc. are shaped in the form of a stepped pyramid. This is an interesting demonstration of archaeology showing the diffusion of Buddlxism as a contact among long distance cultures.
This paper aimed to reveal activities of immigrant craftsmen from the Korean Peninsula who engaged in haniwa (clay figurine) production, through analysis of haniwa in East Japan from the Middle Kofun produced by a tapping technique. Conclusions were: 1) the tapping methodology of haniwa that were discussed in this paper was a technique brought to East Japan though people who leamed pottery making technology in the Korean Peninsula, 2) haniwa craftsmen were not organized in every production group that supplied haniwa to mounded tombs, 3) as haniwa from three mounded tombs concentrated in the northwestern part of Saitama Prefecture were made with different tapping tools, it is assumed that different immigrant craftsman joined in each production group, 4) some production groups were not organized only with immigrant craftsmen but rather had a cooperative system with craftsmen that possessed previous haniwa making technique, 5) the existence of manufacturers of Korean style pottery is not directly connected with production of tapped haniwa , but rather their production activity differed depending on each pottery/haniwa production group in the area.
This article tried to examine problems of the introductory phase of horizontal stone chaniber burial systems in Koznke region, through excavation research on Tsukudakanezuka mounded tomb, which was buried in volcanic pumice from Mt. Haruna.
The small and round Tsukudakaneznka mounded tomb was preserved extremely well since it was covered by pumice from volcanic eruptions, and it has a burial facility of a horizontal, corridor-style stone chamber painted brightly with red pigment. From its stone chamber structure, it is defined as the early introduction phase of horizontal stone chambers in Kozuke region.
In this article, characteristics of stone chamber structures were organized into an introductory phase of horizontal stone chamber burial systems in Koznke region, and thoughts were given on regional trends related to the transition to horizontal stone chanrber burial systems in the beginning of the Late Kofun period, based on aspects of mounded tomb construction in the region around the joint between the Tone and Azuma Rivers (present Shibnkawa City area) , before the disaster of a volcanic eruption.
The discovery of jobo features at Shimomitsuhashi site in Yamatokoriyama City, Nara Prefecture, which was located south of 9-jo-oji, considered to be the southern city boundary, was a much discussed topic. So far, excavated jobo road features consist of nine examples including the 10-jo-oji, and their width and the space between roads are the same standard as that of roads north of 9-jo. However, the period of existence for 10-jo-oji was quite short, and pottery typology study indicated that it was intentionally destroyed and buried by 730 A.D. Maybe related to this fact, utilization within the tsuho seems limited, giving an impression that it was yet to be distributed. Also, south of 10-jo-oji, there existed an old stream from the same period with the jobo features, and road features were not confimed where the north koji between 10-jo to 11-jo was assumed to be located, so therefore it was highly possible that the area from 1 1-jo southward did not exist and the initial south limit of Heijokyo was 10-jo-oji.
After the abandonment of 10-jo-oji features, Rajo was constructed on the southern side of 9-jo-oji. Rajo is a narrow-pillared-structure building, which had an inner and outer ditch. In this research, it was confirmed that Rajo ended at East 1-bo-oji, so Rajo extended about 530 meters on the Sakyo side. The structure and scale of Rajo became clear in this research.
As for Kyonan Henjo Jori (special jori) for which there were various views on its enforced period and standards, by the excavation of good faming related features such as wet rice paddies and faming field, it became clear that they divided one jo (4 tsubo = 1500 daishaku) from north to south into five tsubo (1 tsubo = 300 daishaku ≠ 106.4 meters) . Its southern limit is the south side ditch of 10-jo-oji, but now it is covered by Kyonanro Higashi Jori (common jori) . Therefore, the order of construction for land alloiment was jobo, special jori, and common jori.
This book is on archaeological study of the state formation history of ancient Japan. It criticizes the historians' past state formative history, which starts with the Ritsuryo nation in the latter half of the 7th century. It instead proposes that an early nation state was already formed in Japan in the latter half of the 5th century, which developed and evolved into the Ritsuryo nation.
Although it was somewhat unsatisfactory that it did not point out that the formation of the Ritsuryo nation resulted from an East Asian upheaval that began with the formation of the Sui and Tang dynasties, this book consisted mainly of a narration of silent archaeological data, with added historical docurnents and accounts from Chinese history books. The process of making archaeological data historical data, various procedures, and demonstration are minute, and the conclusion is generally appropriate. The future of nation state formative history will progress based on the framework indicated in this book.
This book was published based on author Takumi Anma's dissertation, Nihon Kodai no Shnkogyo Seisan no Kokogakuteki Kenkyu (Archaeological Study of Handicraft Production in Ancient Japan) submitted to Hiroshima University in 2003. It discussed smithy features, which are ancient iron production sites in Japan and blacksmithing techniques. It consisted of six chapters and two appendixes.
Mr. Anma studied iron in ancient Japan, focusing on blacksmithing features such as fire pits and artifacts related to blacksmithing that are the heart of iron tool production. The past archaeological iron tool study focused mainly on the Yayoi and Kofun periods. Also, iron study after the formation of the ancient nation state was clustered on research of iron production methods. This was because the excavated iron tools were limited in this period. However, without grasping the whole picture of iron and iron tool production in ancient society, it is impossible to make any connection between iron and iron tool production of the Yayoi and Kofun periods and that of the medieval and onward. In order to discuss the ancient iron and iron tool production, Mr. Anma cited many historical documents to supplement periods from which there were not enough archaeological features and artif acts .
This book is an ambitious work that tried to understand ancient iron tool production comprehensively, which was not studied deeply before due to the limited data. This is a book that should be read not only by archaeologists, but by researchers who study ancient and medieval society mainly from historical docurnents.